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The Yeast Model Should be Highly Homologous
- Oct 23, 2018 -

As a model organism of higher eukaryotes, especially human genome research, yeast plays a direct role in bioinformatics.When a new human gene whose function is unknown is discovered, the yeast gene whose homologous function is known can be retrieved from any yeast genome database and relevant information on its function can be obtained, thus accelerating the research on the function of the human gene.Studies have found that many genes involved in genetic diseases are highly homologous with yeast genes, and studying the physiological functions of the proteins those genes encode and their interactions with other proteins will help deepen understanding of these genetic diseases.In addition, a number of important human diseases such as diabetes, small bowel cancer and heart disease, early are polygenic hereditary disease, reveals all the related genes involved in these diseases is a difficult and lengthy process, yeast genes associated with human polygenic inheritance disease similarity between will provide important for us to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of help.

The best example of a model organism is in the study of human genetic disease-related genes obtained through linkage analysis and targeted cloning and then sequencing validation, whose nucleotide sequences and the homology of yeast genes provide excellent clues for functional studies.For example, human genes related to non-polypoid colorectal cancer are highly homologous with MLH1 and MSH2 genes of yeast, TEL1 gene of mot and yeast, and SGS1 gene of blum's syndrome and yeast (see table 2).The genetic non-polypoid colorectal cancer gene showed short nucleotide repeat order unstable cell phenotype in tumor cells, and before the human gene was cloned, researchers isolated gene mutations with the same phenotype in yeast (msh2 and mlh1 mutations).This result led to speculation that the colorectal cancer gene was a homologous gene of MSH2 and MLH1, and their homology on nucleotide sequences further confirmed this hypothesis.Blum's syndrome is a genetic disease with clinical manifestations of sexual precocity. Patients' cells show a shortened life cycle phenotype when cultured in vitro, and its related genes have high homology with SGS1 gene of snail enzyme in yeast.Similar to culture cells from individuals with bloom's syndrome, yeast cells with SGS1 mutation show significantly shortened life cycles.Francoise studied the functions of more than 170 by the cloning of human genes, found that 42% of their genes has obvious homology with yeast, most of these human gene product coding and signal transduction pathways, membrane transport or DNA synthesis and repair, and those that no significant homology with yeast genes main human genes encoding some membrane receptor, blood and immune system components, or special human metabolic pathway in some important enzymes and proteins.