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The Gene of Yeast
- Sep 30, 2018 -

As more genetic information of higher eukaryotes is obtained, more yeast genes will be found to be homologous with higher eukaryotic genes. Therefore, the role of yeast genome in the field of bioinformatics will be more important, which will in turn promote the study of yeast genome.Compared with yeast, higher eukaryotes have a richer phenotype, which makes up for the lack of obvious phenotypic changes in some gene mutations in yeast.The following example illustrates the mutually reinforcing relationship between yeast and human genome research.Human pigmented dry skin disease is an autosomal recessive genetic skin disease, which can easily develop into skin cancer.As early as 1970, Cleaver et al. reported that colorectal dry skin disease and uv-sensitive yeast mutant were related to the lack of nucleotide excision repair (NER).In 1985, the first NER pathway related gene was sequenced and confirmed as a RAD3 gene in yeast.In 1987, Sung first reported that yeast Rad3p can repair the defects in DNA helicase activity in eukaryotic cells.In 1990, xPD was cloned and found to have a very high homology to the RAD3 gene in the yeast NER pathway.It was subsequently found that all human NER genes could be found in the yeast homologous genes.A major breakthrough came in 1993, when it was discovered that both human xPBp and xPDp are the basic components of the TFIIH complex of RNA polymerase II in the transcription mechanism.Thus it was speculated that the homologous genes of xPBp and xPDp in yeast (RAD3 and RAD25) should also have similar functions.

 

The role of yeast as a model organism is not only in bioinformatics, but also provides a detectable experimental system for higher eukaryotes.For example, the function of a gene can be identified by complementing that of a yeast gene.According to Bassett's incomplete statistics, by July 15, 1996, at least 71 pairs of human and yeast complementary genes had been discovered.

Sep.30, 2019

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